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Hard Target: Sanctions, Inducements, and the Case of North Korea

Stephan Haggard, and Marcus Noland

978 1 5036 0036 2
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Publication date:
15 June 2017

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Because authoritarian regimes like North Korea can impose the costs of sanctions on their citizens, these regimes constitute "hard targets." Yet authoritarian regimes may also be immune—and even hostile—to economic inducements if such inducements imply reform and opening. This book captures the effects of sanctions and inducements on North Korea and provides a detailed reconstruction of the role of economic incentives in the bargaining around the country's nuclear program.

Stephan Haggard and Marcus Noland draw on an array of evidence to show the reluctance of the North Korean leadership to weaken its grip on foreign economic activity. They argue that inducements have limited effect on the regime, and instead urge policymakers to think in terms of gradual strategies. Hard Target connects economic statecraft to the marketization process to understand North Korea and addresses a larger debate over the merits and demerits of "engagement" with adversaries.


Stephan Haggard is the Krause Distinguished Professor of Korea-Pacific Studies at the Graduate School of Global Policy and Strategy, University of California, San Diego. With Marcus Nolan, he is the author of Famine in North Korea (2007), Witness to Transformation (2011) and the blog North Korea: Witness to Transformation.

Marcus Noland is Executive Vice President and Director of Studies at the Peterson Institute for International Economics. He is the author of Avoiding the Apocalypse (2000), which won the 2002 Masayoshi Ohira Memorial Prize.



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